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【中英文】一些蔬菜和水果不能乱吃
freeto(2018/7/11 16:35:21)  点击:1148  回复:0  
营养学家一直告诉人们多吃蔬菜水果有益健康,但并不是只要是蔬菜水果就可以随便吃,吃什么、吃多少取决于每个人的身体情况。吃错蔬菜水果,不但会有副作用,可能还会让你生病。下面这些蔬果不能乱吃。

AVOCADO 鳄梨(牛油果)

People who are sensitive to latex can also have an allergic reaction to avocado.

对乳胶敏感的人可能对鳄梨也会有过敏反应。

Latex comes from the sap of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. A study of 137 patients with rubber latex allergy, published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, found that 21.1 percent were also allergic to particular foods, including banana (18.3 percent) and avocado (16.3 percent).

乳胶来自橡胶树的汁液。一项发表在《美国饮食协会学报》上的研究在调查了137位对胶乳过敏的患者后发现,21.1%的患者也对特定食物过敏,其中包括香蕉(18.3%)和鳄梨(16.3%)。

This is because some of the proteins in latex that cause allergic reactions are also present in these fruits.

这是因为乳胶中会导致过敏反应的一些蛋白质在这些水果中也存在。

The same cross-reactivity can happen with kiwi fruit, says Professor Jean Emberlin, scientific director of Allergy UK. ‘The proteins are very similar in both the latex and the fruit, so they can trigger similar reactions.’

英国过敏协会的科学主任琼·艾姆伯林教授说,猕猴桃也会产生同样的交叉过敏反应。“乳胶和猕猴桃中的蛋白质非常相似,所以会引发相似的过敏反应。”

Symptoms include tingling in the mouth, stuffy nose, itchy eyes, wheezing and, in rare cases, life-threatening anaphylaxis.

过敏症状包括口腔刺痛、鼻塞、眼睛痒、哮喘,在极少数情况下还可能引发致命的过敏性反应。

CHERRIES 樱桃

‘Cherry stones can be dangerous if chewed and then swallowed, as they contain a chemical compound based on the poison cyanide,’ says Dr Sanjay Prasad, a consultant cardiologist at the Royal Brompton Hospital in London.

伦敦皇家布朗普顿医院的心脏科顾问医师桑杰·普拉萨德说:“将樱桃核咀嚼后吞下会有危险,因为樱桃核含有一种本质为有毒氰化物的化合物。”

If the stone is ground down, say by chewing, then the compound amygdalin, a form of cyanide, is released.

如果樱桃核被嚼碎或碾碎,这种名为苦杏仁苷的化合物(一种氰化物)就会释放出来。

This can cause fever, headaches, falling blood pressure and, in extreme cases, can be fatal.

摄入这种化合物会导致发烧、头痛、血压下降,在极端情况下还可致命。

Research suggests the cyanide compound in cherries could be fatal in doses as small as 1.5 mg per kilogram of bodyweight, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

根据欧洲食品安全局的数据,研究显示,樱桃中氰化物的摄入量只要达到每公斤体重1.5毫克,就会致命。

A single cherry yields roughly 170 mg of cyanide per gram of seed — which means ingesting one or two freshly crushed stones could be dangerous. Apricot kernels also contain high levels of amygdalin — eating more than three small, raw apricot kernels, or less than half of one large kernel, can be a serious health risk, says the EFSA.

每克樱桃核大约会产生170毫克的氰化物,这意味着吃下一两个刚碾碎的樱桃核就会很危险。据欧洲食品安全局称,苦杏仁也含有大量苦杏仁苷,吃下三个以上的生的小苦杏仁,或者不到半个大苦杏仁,就会对健康产生严重危害。

The chemical is also found in apple seeds — but you would have to eat two cups of ground seeds for it to be fatal.

苹果核中也含有这种化合物,不过要吃掉两杯碾碎的苹果核才会有生命危险。

GRAPEFRUIT 葡萄柚

If you’re taking statins, check with your doctor whether you can have grapefruit juice, says Dr Prasad. ‘Statins are broken down by an enzyme in the liver, CYP3A, which normally reduces the amount of drug that enters your bloodstream.’

普拉萨德医生说,如果你正在服用他汀类药物,和你的医生确认一下你能否喝葡萄柚汁。“肝脏中一种名为CYP3A的酶能分解他汀类药物,正常情况下会减少进入血流的药物量。”

But grapefruit contains compounds that affect the function of CYP3A and therefore increases the potency of the drug (because less is broken down).

但是葡萄柚所含的化合物会影响CYP3A的功能,从而增加药物的效力(因为被分解掉的药量变少了)。

BANANAS 香蕉



蔬菜和水果也不能乱吃!专家:乱吃可致病

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Avoid very large quantities of bananas if you’ve had kidney problems, as they contain the mineral potassium.

如果你有肾病,不要吃太多香蕉,因为它们含有矿物钾。

‘Kidneys regulate the amount of potassium in the body and if they’re functioning normally, they can control intake,’ explains Paul Cathcart, a consultant urological surgeon at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital in London.

伦敦盖伊和圣托马斯医院的泌尿外科顾问医师保罗·卡思卡特解释道:“肾能调节体内的钾含量,如果肾脏正常运转,就能控制人体吸收的钾。”

But kidneys that don’t function normally can allow potassium to build up, potentially triggering hyperkalemia, which causes nausea, a slower pulse and an irregular heartbeat.

但是,不能正常运转的肾脏会让钾不断累积,从而可能引发高钾血,导致恶心、脉搏变慢和心跳不齐等症状。

‘So if you have a renal impairment or have had kidney disease, you should have a lower potassium intake,’ says Mr Cathcart.

卡思卡特说:“所以,如果你有肾损伤或肾病,应该少摄入钾。”

Healthy adults need about 3,500mg of potassium a day, says dietitian Dr Sarah Schenker. The average banana contains between 400 mg and 450 mg, so you’d have to eat more than seven-and-a-half bananas to reach that level.

营养学家莎拉·申克尔博士说,健康的成人每天需要大约3500毫克钾。一根普通的香蕉含有400到450毫克的钾,所以你必须吃7根半香蕉才能达到这一水平。

BEETROOT 甜菜根

If you’ve had kidney stones, avoid beetroot, says Bhaskar Somani, a consultant urological surgeon and honorary senior lecturer in urology at University Hospital Southampton.

南安普顿大学医院泌尿外科顾问医师和荣誉高级讲师巴斯卡·索曼尼说,如果你有肾结石,就不要吃甜菜根。

‘Beetroot contains oxalates — substances that prevent calcium being absorbed.’

“甜菜根含有草酸——这种物质可以阻止钙被人体吸收。”

Most people’s bodies can break down and eliminate these substances via the kidney or colon. But in some people, oxalates can accumulate, leading to stones.

多数人的身体都可以通过肾脏或结肠来分解和消除这些物质。但对有些人而言,草酸则会在体内积聚,引发结石。

SPROUTS 豆芽菜

Sprouts should be avoided if you’re taking the anticoagulant drug warfarin, used to help prevent blood clots or to keep a clot from getting bigger, advises Yoon Loke, a professor of medicine and pharmacology at the University of East Anglia.

东安格利亚大学的医药学教授永恩·洛克建议,如果你正在服用抗凝血药物华法林,就不要吃豆芽菜。

‘This is because green, leafy vegetables such as sprouts and spinach are high in vitamin K, a nutrient needed to make clotting factors in the body — the opposite of what warfarin does, which is to thin the blood.

“这是因为豆芽菜和菠菜等绿叶蔬菜含有大量维生素K——一种凝血因子所需的营养物质——和华法林正相反,华法林会让血液变稀。”

‘So vitamin K inhibits the effects of warfarin.’

“所以维生素K会抑制华法林的药效。”

CABBAGE 卷心菜

Raw cabbage, along with cauliflower and kale, contains goitrogens — substances that can affect thyroid function by blocking production of the hormone thyroxine, says Dr Mark Vanderpump, a consultant endocrinologist at The Physicians’ Clinic in London.

伦敦内科医生诊所的内分泌科顾问医师马克·范德普说,生卷心菜和花椰菜、羽衣甘蓝一样含有致甲状腺肿因子,这种物质能通过阻止甲状腺激素的分泌影响甲状腺功能。

The hormone helps to absorb iodine, which is essential for normal thyroid function.

这种激素有助于吸收碘,而碘对于正常的甲状腺功能至关重要。

The effects are small, so cabbage is unlikely to cause problems in healthy people and those who are taking the drug levothyroxine for underactive thyroid.

由于作用比较小,所以卷心菜不太可能让健康的人和因甲状腺机能低下而服用左旋甲状腺素的人身体出问题。

‘But these vegetables may be an issue for those who have a low thyroid function but haven’t been diagnosed. Symptoms include tiredness and weight gain,’ says Dr Vanderpump.

范德普医生说:“但这些蔬菜对于那些甲状腺机能低下但还未被诊断出的患者可能是个问题。甲状腺机能低下的症状包括疲倦和增重。”

BROAD BEANS 蚕豆

Tyramine, found in foods including broad beans, chocolate and hard cheese, is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure.

蚕豆、巧克力和硬质奶酪等食物所含的酪胺是一种有助于调节血压的氨基酸。

However, if you take one of the older forms of antidepressant known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the drug can block the enzyme that breaks down excess tyramine.

但是,如果你服用比较老的抗抑郁药单胺氧化酶抑制剂,这种药物会阻断能分解过多酪胺的酶。

A build-up of tyramine can lead to critically high blood pressure, says Dr Prasad.

普拉萨德医生说,酪胺的累积可引发严重的高血压。

CRANBERRIES 蔓越橘

Cranberry juice contains salicylic acid, a key ingredient in aspirin, so reduce the amount you drink if you take aspirin regularly (it is often prescribed as a blood thinner for those who have had a heart attack), as this could thin the blood further.

蔓越橘汁含有水杨酸,这是阿司匹林中的关键成分,所以如果你定期服用阿司匹林(医生经常给发作过心脏病的人开阿司匹林,因为这能稀释血液),就要少喝蔓越橘汁,否则会让血液进一步变稀。

‘Drinking more than three glasses of cranberry juice a day can increase the amount of salicylic acid in your body,’ says Professor Loke. ‘To be on the safe side, keep intake to less than this if you take aspirin regularly.’

洛克教授说:“每天喝超过三杯的蔓越橘汁会增加体内的水杨酸。如果你定期服用阿司匹林,安全起见,喝蔓越橘汁不要超过三杯。”

Salicylic acid could also potentially affect how you metabolise warfarin.

水杨酸还可能影响体内华法林的代谢。
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